Household coal use and lung cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of case–control studies, with an emphasis on geographic variation
Emissions from household coal combustion associated with cooking
and heating are an important public health issue, particularly
in China where hundreds of millions of people are exposed.
Although coal emissions are a known human carcinogen, there is still uncertainty about the level of risk for lung and other cancers. Our results provide evidence that although the carcinogenic effect of coal use varies by location, coals from many locations exhibit
elevated lung cancer risks.